Month: October 2015

Masculinity In The Cinema

In the early days of cinema, men were portrayed as strong and brave. Men were often shown as heroes or villains.

Men were seen as protectors of women.

James Bond provided a role model for male viewers. He was strong, sexy, dangerous and not really a protector of women as well as someone who seduced women.

  • Sexy
  • Dangerous
  • Macho

Tarzan Syndrome

The Tarzan Syndrome is the theory that men must have a woman. This law must have a woman in order for humanity to survive. For example, every Tarzan must have his Jane, Spiderman must have his Lois Lane.

As male (and female) identities have developed and changed over time in real life, the action hero has also become dated and seen as a bit of a joke. Macho men are no longer fashionable, and perhaps no longer what women want.

New Man

In the 1990’s, there was much talk of the ‘new man’ – a man who recognised the equality of women and moved away from the chauvinistic attitudes of the previous generation.

Hugh Grant epitomised the new man.

According to the Guardian, a new man ‘gets up at night to the crying baby, cooks, washes up, attends ante-natal classes and pushes the pram in the park, plays inventive games with children, soothe the baby and change it’s dirty nappy, shops fast and sensibly always remembering dinner money, iron the school shirt whilst minding the toast with the baby slung over one shoulder.

Womb Envy

  • This post – Freudian’s idea refers to men’s jealously and inadequacy and not being able to nurture a foetus and give birth.
  • Some films reflect this notion, such as Junior, Daddy Daycare and Three Men and a baby.

Film And Gender Theory – The Male Gaze

The concept of the gaze is one that deals with how an audience views the people presented.

For feminists, it can be thought of in three ways

  • How men look at women
  • How women look at themselves
  • How women look at other women

Feminist Laura Mulvey, invented the term ‘male gaze’ in 1975. Feminism are people who fight for women’s rights to ensure women get the same equality as men.

She believes that, in the world of film, audiences have to ‘view’ characters from the perspective of a heterosexual male.

This could be because most film makers are heterosexual males.

Features of the male gaze

  • The camera lingers on curves of the female body
  • Women are relegated to the status of objects
  • Male characters drive the narrative forward whilst women slow it down

They can be presented either as love interests, characters who represent domestic normality or characters who need protecting.

Where women have important roles, they are far more likely to be shown as:

  • Frightened
  • Needing protection
  • Offering support to the male lead
  • Dependent
  • Preoccupied with family/relationships

The female viewer must experience the narrative secondarily, by identification with the male.

Queer Theory

Queer theory is a set of ideas based around the idea that identities aren’t fixed and do not determine who we are. It suggests it’s meaningless to talk in general about ‘women’ or any other group as identities consist of so many elements that to assume that people can be seen collectively on the basis if one shared characteristic is wrong. Queer theorists believe that the human body may not be essentially male or female. In some people’s views, feminism also made the case that all men were aggressive and that sex was always violent, and that if women ran the world, we’d all be better off. The more rigid the masculine and the feminine became and the more the battle of the sexes raged on, the more excited queer theorists became to step in and challenge those categories.

Judith Butler wrote a book called ‘Gender Trouble’ which said “gender should be seen as a fluid variable which shifts and changes in different contexts and at different times.” She argues that sex (male, female) is seen to cause gender (masculine, feminine) which is seen to cause desire (towards the other gender). Judith’s approach was to smash the supposed links between these, so that gender and desire are flexible, free-floating and not caused by other stable factors.

The 1980’s was the time when masculinity was displayed mostly through the action genre. Women were void from these films and when they did appear, then they were simply motivation for the men. Films in the 90’s responded to the general stereotypical structure of gender.

There are five types of feminism; Liberal feminism, Marxist feminism, Radical feminism, Socialist feminism and Post modern feminism.

Socialist feminism = women’s inferior position is the result of class-based capitalism.

Marxist feminism – division of labour is related to gender role expectations. Females give birth, males are left to support the family. Bourgeoisie – Men. Proletariat – Women.

Radical feminism – male power and privileges is the basis of social relations. Focused on men and the patriarchy as the main causes of the oppression of women. Refusing to reproduce is the most effective way to escape the snares.

26.2% of women get partially naked in films as opposed to only 9.4% of men. The ratio of male actors to female actors are 2.25 : 1. There is a 5 : 1 ratio men working on films to women. In 2013, the highest paid female actor was Angelina Jolie who made $33 million which is roughly the same amount as the two lowest-ranked men.

Bin Structure 14th October 2015

TC – Time code

Bins in this case are places where you put footage you do want to keep.

E.D.L (XML) – Edit Decision List


  1. Back it up
  2. Create a folder onto the external drive, server or local (desktop) E.G. Microsoft Spaceman
  3. Name it. E.g. 7th October 2015 footage (Naming convention)

Adobe Premiere

Creating new bins

  • Footage              7th October 2015 Day 1 (DO NOT USE SLASHES OR DOTS FOR THE DATE)
  • Voice over
  • Music
  • Sound Effects (SFX)
  • Graphics

Dump Sequence

Offline (Microsoft Spaceman Cut 1)

Edits (Microsoft Spaceman Cut 2)

Offline edits

Online edits

bin structure

Character Alignment and Allegiance

Alignment is when you are being placed close to a character (Hear their thoughts. Voice over. Looking at camera. Close ups.)

Allegiance is siding with a character. (POV shots. Intimate information)

E.g. in the film, Heather, we have alienated against Heather because she bullied Martha by giving her a fake love letter then laughing at her when she asked the guy about the letter. She started off as a normal, typical teenage girl who was tying blonde hair so that made her seem alright. Then we see a group shot of three girls in primary colours on a well tended, spacious lawn which shows she is middle class. We then see a group shot again, of their legs walking all over a well kept lawn and flowerbed which shows the girls are mischievous. We then see them play croquet with the same balls and Veronica’s head mysteriously buried in the grass.

Alienation = Techniques of alienation to make us not care or dislike a character. (Hidden or wearing a mask, name/voice, negative information, weird looking, where they live)

Post Production Set Up 7-10-15

Linear editing

Only one editing master


On a tape and SD card there is a time code (T.C)


H      M     S       F

Hours Minutes Seconds Frames

25fps frames per second

Time of day T.O.D (e.g. 13:20:00:00)

Wide shot


In point ————————————Out point

You can create handles before an in point

Non-linear software packages include Final Cut Pro, Adobe premiere pro and AVID.

Time code for an edited master

Timecode_OverlayTime code

Every show of a professional edited master (TV) is 10:00:00:00 (10 hours)

30 seconds of black (no colour of audio) then 1 minute of bars and tone and 30 seconds of clock


westone Clock


SD Card – Write Project copy to an external drive to a named foldermaxresdefault Bars and tone

Music Video Theory for Sophia

Synergy is when two or more media products work together to help each other sell. E.g. My Heart Will Go On promotes the film Titanic.

Encoding And Decoding

Text is anything that can be read or analysed.

A sign is a means by which to communicate meaning.

Polysemic = Multiple meanings for one sign.

Commodities = Anything that can be bought or sold.


Signifier = The physical (or audible form)

Signified = The mental association or concept

Narrative = comes from the Latin ‘Narrato’ meaning ‘I Tell’. It is the way the story is told.

Narration = Telling the story through. (Voice over)

Narrator = Story teller.

2 Russian Guys said:

Tvetan Todorov said: All stories follow this pattern, initial (equilibrium) also known as balance of a story has a equilibrium then a disequilibrium and then an equilibrium again so something good happens, then something goes wrong then it goes back to good by the ending.

Disequilibrium – Something gone wrong. Disruption.

Restored equilibrium – Balance again.

Transformation in iminal period

Vladimir Propp said there’s always the hero who departs on search, a villain who struggles with the hero, the donor who gives the object to the hero, a Princess who is a sought for a person who exists as a goal and often recognises and marries the hero and/or punishes the villain. Sometimes the Princess is a thing and not a person for example the treasure in Pirates Of The Caribbean.  Also, a father and a false hero who claims to be good, dispatcher sends hero on quest in every story.

What do stories need?

Stories need a:

  • Plot (ie order)
  • Beginning, middle and end
  • Point
  • Moral
  • Genre
  • Audience
  • Characters
  • Props
  • Protagonist and Antagonist (goodies and baddies)
  • Problem that needs to be solved (disequilibrium)
  • Obstacle

In days before music videos existed, radio was the main medium for promoting your song or track. Programmes relied on a combination of live performances, interviews with musicians and bands, the chart list and input from the studio audience. Most singers mimed in the 80’s.

Bohemian Rhapsody by Queen was the first ever music video to be aired.

Parody – Joke Version

Pastiche – Copy of a style (serious version)

Cover – Copy of someone else’s song (serious version)

MTV first began in U.S.A in 1981 and they promised that they would play music videos all day every day (24 hours a day).

Buggles’ Video Killed The Radio Star was the first music video ever played on MTV. A Flock Of Seagulls in the 80’s never gained any popularity in the UK but were a new wave UK’s band.

Many movie directors began their careers by directing music videos. For example, Bad Girl and Vogue by Madonna was directed by movie director David Fincher who directed movies such as Gone Girl, The Girl With The Dragon Tattoo and Panic Room. Also, Michael Bay who directed the Transformers movies also directed the music video for Meatloaf’s I’d Do Anything For Love (But I Won’t Do That). Also, John Landis directed some Michael Jackson songs including Thriller and Black or White but also the movie Blues Brothers 2000.