The Law, Libel, Slander and Defamation of Character.
- If you say something about someone then it’s slander.
- If you write something about someone and published about someone then it’s libel. – PERMANENT FORM.
- Signs, gestures, photographs, statues and cartoons etc. can also rise to a claim of defamation.
Defamation is anything that is putting harm to others in any way.
Defamation can be spoken or printed words which accuse the claimant of committing a crime, saying they have a contagious disease or being unfit for their job.
An individual is defamed when a person publishes to a third party words or matter that contains an untrue allegation against his or her reputation.
If you tell somebody something defamatory about someone else then they could sue you for defamation if he/she could prove that he/she was damaged as a result of your statement.
Ethics – Morals – what’s right and what’s wrong.
It is not a crime to pay a subject for an interview, but it is generally considered unethical.
An opinion cannot be an act of defamation. It must be a statement of fact.
“I think that Fred’s a jerk.” This is an opinion so nothing can be said about it. But “Fred stole $1,000 from his boss.” is a statement of fact. If that statement isn’t true, it is defamatory. That is a false statement that can cause injury to Joe. It could get him fired. By saying ‘I think’ proves that they don’t know the truth but they are warning others that he may have stolen the money and that he wants people to check it out.
In order for a statement to be defamatory, it must have been made to a 3rd party. A person can’t be defamed by a statement that is said or written to yourself.
What inspired me to do my video installation was that I saw some video installations on youtube which had lots of colours and flashing images which gave me the idea of doing my installation like that. I also watched a video on YouTube called Western Spaghetti by PES which had everyday household goods and made a dinner out of them so it used bubble wrap and made that look like boiling water, pick up sticks to look like spaghetti, glitter to look like salt and elastic bands to look like cooked spaghetti.
I have applied inspiration into my work by including coloured UV lights and colourful flowers. In my project, the pencil is reflecting coloured UV lights around it and then the camera flicks to colourful flowers. The flowers would be gently swaying in the wind and slowed down.
My video is about beauty and happiness. There will be a pencil in the middle of a table and the camera will pan around it. Then I will photoshop pictures of UV light emitting around the pencil. Then the camera will show some colourful flowers gently blowing from the wind which will be slowed down a little in the edit.
The music video was pretty good. You had a good use of green screen because not really any string or shadows were visible in the video. The flying of the plane going through many countries I thought was very good because it added effect to the video. I liked the added effect of the green shark eye. The editing of the music video was very clever and I think that without the video being edited then the music video would be very basic and blunt.
The graphics of the whole video could have been a lot better for example the explosions at the end graphics weren’t as good as they could have been, and the picture backgrounds could have been less pixelated. The 4 sharks on the Mount Rushmore scene didn’t fit in with the concept of only one shark following the plane which made it a little bit of a continuity error. The video as a whole didn’t really make any sense, for example, why was there a flying shark and why was a plane travelling around the world? These things just didn’t really make much sense and didn’t go very well with the song. Also the video could have been more realistic, for example the movements of the plane animations were sudden and didn’t really look natural.
The video was very confusing to watch, as nothing really added up. It was also very intriguing because a lot of stuff in it had me sat on the edge of my seat wanting to watch more. The video also had me laughing because it was so random and is nothing like the stereotypical music video we all see on television, but it was actually pretty good.
The researcher observes ongoing research.
Observational isn’t just looking at things it is carefully watching things to try and understand them in depth, in order to get information about them.
Participant Observation: You join in with the group you are observing and involve yourself.
Non – Participant Observation: You watch from a distance.
Overt Observations = Open about what you’re there for.
- easily legally/ethically (morals – the difference between what’s right and what’s wrong.)
Covert Observations: Not informing members of the group why they’re there. (Hidden.)
- It is easier to make and is reliable/valid.
Find an image of light emitting and photoshop it in after.
Validity means actually measuring what you claim to be measuring for example don’t do an investigation to measure the temperature that water freezes up but instead of using water use milk.
Reliability means producing stable and consistent results. Repeatedly. For example, it wouldn’t be reliable if you conducted the test on Jupiter where water maybe doesn’t freeze at zero.
Bias is where the scientists or researchers performing the research influence the results (intentionally or not). For example, an interview about personal habits is conducted by an attractive interviewer and the respondent tells them lies as it may appear to be unattractive to them, so would mess up the final results.
What if you took a test and two weeks later took the same test? Will the results be the same?
Not necessarily, because you could be ill that day so it may be difficult to concentrate. Someone in the exam could be off-putting for example coughing non-stop or there could be rain or a loud aeroplane outside that might put you off and lose where you are. You may also have revised but forgotten by the next time. Your mood may be worse or you may have something on your mind the second time.
- Questionnaire – Series of written questions
- Focus Groups
- Magazines and newspapers
- Google (www)
- Dictionary and/or encyclopedia
- TV and film
Questionnaires tend to be good for quantitative data.
Advantages of questionnaires are:
- Easy and quick way to get information
- Easy to duplicate
- It is written so it is a lot easier to read and understand
- Cheap to produce
- You can post or email it around the world.
- It is good for closed questions (Yes or no answer)
- Anonymous so more likely to have truthful responses
- Quantitative data
Disadvantages of questionnaires are:
- They may not be taken seriously
- Many people may not answer so there would be a low response rate
- It doesn’t allow for different interpretations and individual answers
Advantages of interviews are:
- Response is more open for discussion
- Less chance of misunderstanding the question and you can ask them to explain
- Better response rate because it is harder to walk away from an interviewer.
- Instant response
Disadvantages of interviews are:
- Costly because you need to employ someone to interview them
- There could be awkwardness between the interviewer and the interviewee.
- You might not like their face or vice versa you might be attracted to them so it could be hard to answer truthfully.
- The question has to lead somewhere but they may not when being interviewed
Under Dutch law, children are admitted to films carrying an age rating if accompanied by an adult except in the case of “16” rated films.
AL – All Ages
6 – Potentially harmful to children under 6 years.
9 – Potentially harmful to children under 9 years.
12 – Potentially harmful to children under 12 years; broadcasting is not allowed before 8:00 pm.
16 – Potentially harmful to children under 16 years; broadcasting is not allowed before 10:00 pm.
Mostly, these icons are used along with other symbols, displaying if a movie contains violence, sexual content, frightening scenes, drug or alcohol abuse, discrimination, or coarse language. These symbols are also used for TV-programs in the Netherlands.