WHAT (returning to the situation)

  1. Is the purpose of returning to this situation?
  2. Exactly occurred in your words?
  3. did you see? did you do?
  4. was your reaction?
  5. did other people do? e.g. colleague, patient, visitor
  6. Do you see as key aspects of the situation/

SO WHAT? (understanding the context)

  1. Were your feelings at the time?
  2. Are your feelings now? Are there any differences? Why?
  3. Were the effects of what you did (or did not do)?
  4. “Good” emerged from the situation, e.g. for self/others? Troubles you, if anything?
  5. Were your experiences in comparison to your colleagues, etc?
  6. are the main reasons for feeling differently from your colleagues etc?

NOW WHAT (modifying future outcomes)

  1. are the implications for you, your colleagues, the patient etc…?
  2. needs to happen to alter the situation?
  3. are you going to do about the situation?
  4. happens if you decide not to alter anything?
  5. might you do differently if you are faced with a similar situation again?
  6. information do you need to face a similar situation again?
  7. are your best ways of getting further information about the situation should it arise again?


  1. Provide a summary of the issues explored
  2. Remind the reader of the purpose of the essay
  3. Suggest an appropriate course of action in relation to the needs identified in the body of the essay.


500 words minimum. Reflective writing.

Presentation and self-promotion skills



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