Category: Camera Settings

23/2/17 -Camera (Skills and Compression)

Tested along the way how well the camera knowledge has sunk in.

Schedule

Thursdays

23rd – Aperture

2nd – Colour

9th – Camera and edit setup

16th – Compression

23rd – Testing

Fridays – Showreel, Vimeo page or Website

 

Interlaced – T.V., live, documentary

Progressive – Filmic – Drop a field (25fps)

Upper field – DVCAM

Lower field – (small cam)

(De-Interlaced) – If the fields are the wrong way round, the video will be flickery.

LED – light emitting diode (10 years lifespan) – SOLID

LCD – Liquid crystal display (2-3 years lifespan) – LIQUID

PLASMA – GAS – Hardly ever used

C.R.T – Hardly ever used

 

P.A.L – Phase Alternating Line – Britain – TV Standard – 50Hz

N.T.S.C – North America – TV Standard – 60 Hz

S.E.C.A.M. – France – TV Standard – 50 Hz

70 dpi  (dots per inch)

1920 x 1080 – H.D. (frame size) (1080p)

4k – 4096 x 2160 (2160p)

Moving Image

Aperture, ISO, Shutter speed

Aperture – F setting – F Stop

  • Blurring the background of an image

Hole

(Pupil) like an eye is like the iris (aperture) on a camera

Diaphragm (affects the size of the aperture)

F – stop – Small aperture – Large number – f/22

Large aperture – Small number -f / 1.4

Inside – Open up aperture

If you are outside – Close the aperture

F8 and be there – If you aren’t sure of the lighting then use f8.

f/32 – D.O.F. – Depth of field – Focus near and far with a smaller aperture for example filming a pebble on a beach would be a high f setting to get the best focus. If you want it to blur, you change the aperture accordingly.

f/1.4 – Focus near not far or vice versa not both.

gugh

aperture

exposure-triangle-aperture1lowend-android-cameras-and-the-exposure-triangle-6-638

There can be different lenses:

Fixed (Prime) 1 x focal length – f stop remains the same

Zoom lens – Tighter and wider – Variable apertures

If you have a 18mm – 200mm zoom lens (zoom out) f/3.5  zoomed in is f/5.6

Some zoom lenses have no change in aperture like a fixed lens but most will.

Film

I.S.O. or A.S.A. – Sensitivity of what is recorded – Sensitivity of film to light

(International Standards Organisation)

Digital

Image Sensor

Lower number – lower sensitivity

High ISO is used in darker situations/locations e.g. to freeze each frame – sharpness

The recording becomes noisy e.g. recording sport. A darker situation so therefore you need to set a higher ISO but then you will have a noisier recording.

ISO 100 was the image on the left and ISO 3200 was the image on the right.

Below is ISO 200 – ISO 3200

ISO-200-and-ISO-3200.jpg

100-400 ASA is a small aperture so you could start off with an aperture of f/2.4 – f/8

  1. Light?
  2. Grain?
  3. Legs?
  4. Moving?

Indoor Sport – For indoor sport you would have a low ISO because you don’t want any grain. You would not use legs because it would constantly be moving. You would have a large aperture because it is filmed inside. – Limited light.

Concert – For concerts you would have a higher ISO because it would most likely be filmed indoors with no grain. You would use camera legs to get a still shot and have a large aperture because it would be fairly dark.

Museum of Art – This would be filmed with a high ISO with high grain and you would definitely use camera legs to get some still shots and have a high aperture.

Chinese New Year – This would be filmed with a low ISO because it would be filmed outside and you would have low grain. It would most likely be filmed on a stills camera and with legs with a low aperture.

SLR – Single lens reflex – Deflecting the light into the view finder.

Shutter Speed

Shut – Light sensor – Shut – Exposed

Length of time of exposure

Slower or faster

Fast shutter speed – Filming birds (1/250th of a second)

ISO needs to increase to 800 because of the sensitivity because we increased the shutter speed.

Iris – Aperture f/2.4

Lighting

Filming a car crash at night in front of the tower block – High shutter speed at about 1/400th and therefore the ISO would need to be increased to 800 because it would be filmed in the dark and the iris would have an aperture of f/2.4 with lots of lighting.

Camera Settings 

Aperture priority mode – I set the aperture and the camera will automatically set the shutter. ISO set.

For indoor sport you would set them to manual and control the aperture and shutter yourself.